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What is IVF?

Invitro fertilization or IVF is an advanced reproductive technique and infertility treatment performed worldwide.

IVF is the process of combining the eggs and sperm outside the body to form a human embryo which leads to conceiving a child.

What are the steps/ procedure in IVF?

The purpose of IVF is to create many embryos to increase the chance of pregnancy.

There are five steps involved in the process of IVF:

Step 1: Suppression

– In this step, the inactivation of natural hormonal secretion takes place. This is usually done with birth control pills or injections.


Step 2: Ovarian Stimulation

– In this step, a woman is injected with daily doses of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH controls the menstrual cycle and stimulates the growth of eggs in the ovaries. A woman only makes enough FSH for one egg even though there are many eggs available every month. So, by injecting excess FSH, it stimulates the production of eggs.

Ovarian Stimulation

Step 3: Egg Retrieval

– Further, we place a needle through the vagina to the ovary and into the egg follicle to harvest the egg using suction. The egg is then handed to the embryologist. We perform egg retrieval in the operating room under intravenous sedation and is not painful.

Egg Retrieval

Step 4: Fertilization and Embryo Development

– Now, the embryologist fertilizes the egg by combining it with the sperm in a petri-dish.

Once fertilized, the embryo starts developing before getting transferred in the womb. The incubation period of the embryo is two to five days.

Fertilization and Embryo Development

Step 5: Embryo Transfer

– We perform this step in the IVF OT. It is a painless and quick process.

Depending on the patient’s age, we transfer a certain number of embryos through the cervix directly into the uterus using a soft plastic catheter under ultrasound guidance.

The number of embryo transfers relies on the age of women:

  • Below 35 years: 1- 2 embryos
  • Above 40 years: 1-5 embryos.
Embryo Transfer

This is the complete procedure of IVF treatment.

After the procedure, you can resume your normal daily activities. Avoid vigorous activity that may lead to discomfort.

After 12 to 14 days our doctor will test a sample of your blood to detect whether you are pregnant or not.

What is the cost of IVF treatment in India?

The cost of IVF treatment in India compared to other countries is quite affordable and result-oriented. Especially, people from other counties consider coming to Mumbai to consult Dr. Rainee Agrawal and get the treatment at a reasonable IVF cost in Mumbai. 


What are the advantages of IVF?

  • IVF provides the highest chances of having a child with their eggs for women with blocked or damaged fallopian tubes.
  • IVF can be used to increase the chances of conceiving in older couples especially those with a low ovarian reserve.
  • Couples with male infertility problems will have a much higher chance of conceiving with IVF than conceiving naturally.
  • IVF has proved very successful for women with PCOS. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in which there is a hormonal imbalance leading to irregular menstrual cycles.
  • Women with endometriosis, where parts of the womb lining grow outside the womb, may require IVF as it has proved successful for premature ovarian failure.
  • Women for whom menopause has started can have IVF treatment by using donor eggs which typically has high success rates.

What are the disadvantages of IVF?

  • The success of IVF is not guaranteed and patients sometimes have to undergo more than one cycle of treatment before they are successful.
  • IVF comes with a small chance of developing side effects. The most severe of these being the Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS). Fortunately, the use of less or no drugs in natural and mild IVF cycles means that the chances of developing unwanted risk of OHSS are decreased or eliminated.
  • Often more than one embryo is put back into the uterus and this leads to a higher likelihood of multiple pregnancies. Around 20% to 30% of IVF pregnancies can result in multiple pregnancies. Multiple pregnancies carry associated health risks to mother and baby. There are higher chances of miscarriage and premature labour.
  • There is a slightly higher chance of ectopic pregnancy. It is the condition in which the fertilized egg grows outside the main cavity of the uterus. If left untreated, it can cause damage to nearby organs. With IVF treatment the risk of an ectopic pregnancy is high particularly in women with damaged fallopian tubes.
  • IVF can increase the risk of prematurity and low birth weight. Low weight at birth may cause long term health problems for the child.

What is the success rate of IVF?

World-wide success rates of IVF range between:

Age (in years) Success rate
Less than 35 40%-45%
38-42 20%-40%
More than 42 10%

fertility specialists would advise considering the use of the egg donor if you are above the age of 42 years.

The success rates when using an egg donor is similar to that of the woman of 37 years of age.   

Factors affecting the success rate of IVF
  • The quality of the embryos determines the success or failure of IVF.
  • It also depends on when or how many embryos are transferred.
  • Presence of medical illnesses or immune conditions or if you are taking any medications that have the potential to affect the quality of the eggs can affect your success rates as well.

Prenatal sex determination & sex selection is illegal in India and not done here. It is a punishable offence.

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